Gender Rights Research

Laws are one good measure of how citizens are treated. We are expanding our research to investigate what has happened internationally regarding how other cultures treat people who express their gender creatively.


Passports


The International Civil Aviation Authority (ICAO) developed the standardized passport requiring a gender marker in 1980. In 2012, ICAO discussed removing gender markers from passports. Some countries have removed gender markers or added a gender marker, "X".



As of 2011, Australia offers a choice of gender "X" on passports

As of 2011, Bangladesh offers an "other" category

In 2012, Argentina can change their name and gender on official documents and transgender citizens are guaranteed access to medical transition treatment

In 2012, New Zealand offered a choice of gender "X" on passports

In 2013, Germany allows parents to leave gender blank for intersex children allowing them to chose their gender

In 2014, Denmark allowed transgender people to self-determine their official gender

In 2014, India recognized a third gender on passports

In 2015, Colombians can change their name and gender on official documents without medical or psychological exams

In 2015, Nepal has a third gender category

Ireland's Gender Recognition Act of 2015 allows transgender adults age 18 and older to self-declare their gender for all official documents

In 2020, Tasmania began considering removing gender markers from national identity documents

In 2020, Netherlands issued a policy removing gender markers from national identity documents

In 2021, Spain is considering removing gender markers from national identity documents

Before 1976, USA passports did not include a gender marker. On June 30, 2021, the USA Department of State issues a press statement will begin a process of updating procedures for issuing U.S. Passports. Applicants may self-select a gender of "M" or "F". Adding a gender marker for non-binary, intersex, and gender non-conforming people is also under review.


International Highlights


29 distinguished human rights legal experts from 25 countries met in Yogyakarta, Indonesia in November 2006 and unanimously adopted the 2006 Yogyakarta Principles. These principles apply to sexual orientation and gender identity in international human rights law.